雨水

What is stormwater?\r\n

When it rains in urban areas, water runs off hard surfaces like roofs, roads, car parks, paths and driveways into stormwater drains. Stormwater eventually flows into creeks, rivers and the ocean.

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什么是雨水?

当城市地区下雨时,水从屋顶、道路、停车场、小路和车道等坚硬的表面流到雨水渠。雨水最终流入小溪、河流和海洋。


Our stormwater system\r\n"}}" id="T1" class="cmp-text">

我们的雨水系统


Being safe around stormwater\r\n

Stormwater drains can be very dangerous places. This is why stormwater drains are often fenced and have warning signs telling people to stay out.

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It's important that you don't go into drains – even during fine weather. It's also a good idea to keep pets away from drains.

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Stormwater drains can be open channels or underground tunnels. They are dangerous because:

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  • water in drains can rise quickly and unexpectedly, even when it's not raining in the local area
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  • huge amounts of water can suddenly wash into the drain when it rains
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  • you may not be able to get out of a stormwater drain if you're swept away by water – you could even drown
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  • even shallow water can be very powerful and could knock you over
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  • drains can contain pollution like broken glass, dangerous chemicals and disease-causing bacteria.
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Don’t try to lift stormwater grates near footpaths and roads, even if something has accidentally dropped down. These grates can be very heavy.

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If you're in a flooded area, stay away from roads, footpaths and areas where you can’t clearly see where you're walking.

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在雨水周围保持安全

雨水渠可能是非常危险的地方。这就是为什么雨水渠通常用栅栏围起来,并有警告标志告诉人们不要出去。

重要的是,即使在好天气,你也不要进入排水沟。让宠物远离下水道也是个好主意。

雨水渠可以是明渠或地下隧道。它们之所以危险是因为:

  • 即使当地没有下雨,下水道里的水也会出乎意料地迅速上升
  • 下雨时,大量的水会突然冲进下水道
  • 如果你被水冲走,你可能无法离开排水管——你甚至可能会被淹死
  • 即使是浅水也可能非常强大,会把你打翻
  • 排水管可能含有碎玻璃、危险化学品和致病细菌等污染。

不要试图抬起人行道和道路附近的雨水格栅,即使有什么东西不小心掉了下来。这些栅格可能很重。

如果你在被洪水淹没的地区,远离道路、人行道和你看不清自己在走什么地方的地方。

雨水渠很危险。


Keeping stormwater clean\r\n"}}" id="text-07e077207e" class="cmp-text">

保持雨水清洁

What's in stormwater?\r\n

Water is a solvent, which means it dissolves things. Wherever it travels, water carries chemicals, minerals and nutrients with it. 

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Stormwater carries all the things that collect on hard surfaces, like roads, footpaths, driveways and roofs. Some examples of things in stormwater are:

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  • litter, like plastic bottles, food packaging and cigarette butts that people leave on the street
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  • oil and grease from cars
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  • dirt, leaves and twigs
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  • animal and bird droppings
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  • chemicals, including nutrients, from washing the car on the driveway or road.
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雨水里有什么?

水是溶剂,也就是说它能溶解东西。无论水流到哪里,水都会携带化学物质、矿物质和营养物质。

雨水携带着所有聚集在坚硬表面上的东西,比如道路、人行道、车道和屋顶。关于雨水的一些例子有:

  • 垃圾,比如塑料瓶、食品包装和人们扔在街上的烟头
  • 汽车上的油和油脂
  • 泥土,树叶和树枝
  • 动物和鸟类的粪便
  • 化学物质,包括营养物质,在车道或马路上洗车。
How is stormwater quality managed?
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Unlike wastewater, stormwater isn't treated before flowing into creeks, rivers and oceans. We (and many councils) manage stormwater using stormwater quality improvement devices (SQIDs).

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SQIDs are designed to catch solids so they can be removed from the water, such as:

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  • trash racks
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  • sediment traps
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  • litter booms
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  • constructed wetlands.
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In the past 20 years, we've installed 70 SQIDs. These devices have helped remove over 35,000 cubic metres of litter and organic waste as well as 39,000 tonnes of sediment from stormwater before it reaches Sydney’s waterways.

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Learn more about what we're doing to manage stormwater.

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如何管理雨水水质?

与废水不同的是,雨水在流入小溪、河流和海洋之前没有经过处理。我们(和许多地方议会)使用雨水水质改善装置(SQIDs)管理雨水。

SQIDs的设计目的是捕获固体,这样它们就可以从水中去除,例如:

  • 垃圾机架
  • 沉积物的陷阱
  • 垃圾的繁荣
  • 人工湿地。

在过去的20年里,我们安装了70个sqid。这些设备已经帮助清除了超过35000立方米的垃圾和有机废物,以及3.9万吨的沉淀物,在雨水到达悉尼水道之前。

了解更多关于我们正在做什么管理雨水

雨水水质改善装置(SQIDs)从水道收集垃圾。

What can you do to help?\r\n

You can help us keep our waterways clean by:

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  • putting rubbish in the bin
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  • washing cars on the grass instead of hard surfaces so detergents wash into the soil rather than stormwater drains
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  • sweeping leaves, dirt and rubbish away from gutters
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  • making sure your gardens have good borders so soil doesn’t wash away
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  • putting grass clippings in the compost bin or on the garden
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  • picking up your pet’s droppings and putting them in a bin
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  • disposing of chemicals, pesticides, paints and oils using your local council's chemical clean out services. 
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你能帮上什么忙?

你可以通过以下方法帮助我们保持水道清洁:

  • 把垃圾放进垃圾箱
  • 在草地上洗车而不是在坚硬的表面上洗车,这样洗涤剂就会被冲进土壤而不是雨水排水沟
  • 清理排水沟里的树叶、泥土和垃圾
  • 确保你的花园有良好的边界,这样土壤就不会被冲走
  • 把剪下来的草放在堆肥箱或花园里
  • 捡起你宠物的粪便,把它们放进垃圾箱里
  • 使用当地议会的化学品清洁服务处理化学品、农药、油漆和油类。

雨水审计

识别你的雨水排水沟中的污染物,帮助保持水道清洁。


Using water-sensitive urban design\r\n"}}" id="text-5c64d0d1a2" class="cmp-text">

采用对水敏感的城市设计

What is water-sensitive urban design?\r\n

It's important to consider the water cycle as part of our built environment. When the water cycle is included in planning, designing and constructing our built environment it's called water-sensitive urban design (WSUD).
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\r\nOur built environment often includes hard surfaces, like roofs and roads, that interrupt the natural water cycle processes of run-offinfiltration and percolation. WSUD concentrates on making sure these processes can still happen.

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When using WSUD, we have to take lots of things into consideration. Learn more about water-sensitive urban design (553KB).

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什么是对水敏感的城市设计?

把水循环作为我们建筑环境的一部分是很重要的。当水循环被纳入规划、设计和建设我们的建筑环境时,它被称为水敏感型城市设计(WSUD)。

我们的建筑环境通常包括坚硬的表面,如屋顶和道路,它们中断了自然水循环的过程径流渗透而且渗滤.WSUD专注于确保这些过程仍然可以进行。

在使用WSUD时,我们必须考虑很多事情。了解更多关于对水敏感的城市设计(53kb)

大量的设计工作涉及到雨水的管理。

Safety – Can we use design to reduce dangers like drowning?
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Maintenance – Who will maintain the area after it's built? How?

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Water quality and quantity – What quality and how much water is flowing in? What quality is the receiving environment?

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Available space – How much land does the design use? What habitat or land features will be impacted?

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Climate – What are the rain patterns? Will the design need to cope with high volume, infrequent rain events or low levels of rain over a long period of time?

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Landscape – What is the topography and slope of the land? What type of soil is in the area? Different soils have different percolation rates.

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Community – How will the area be used by community?

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安全-我们能用设计来减少溺水等危险吗?

维护-谁来维护这个区域在它建成之后?如何?

水质及水量-流入的水的质量和数量?接收环境的质量如何?

可用空间-设计使用了多少土地?哪些生境或土地特征会受到影响?

气候-降雨模式是怎样的?设计是否需要应对大容量、不频繁的降雨事件或长时间低水平的降雨?

景观-土地的地形和坡度如何?这个地区的土壤是什么类型的?不同的土壤有不同的渗透速率。

社区-社区将如何使用该区域?

What are the features of water-sensitive urban design?
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There are many features that can be used individually or together to make a design more water sensitive. 

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Features can change how the water flows through the environment and improve water quality.

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Using the table below, decide which feature you would use for these scenarios:

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  • Stormwater that has no fine sediments but lots of plastic drink bottles. 
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  • Stormwater that runs off a large car park and carries lots of fine sediments.
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Feature

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Description

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Good for

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Vegetated swales

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Water flows through a wide, shallow channel made out of gravel and soil. Plants growing in the channel slow the water down, encourage sediments to settle and capture litter and organic matter.

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Removing litter, organic matter and fine sediments.

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Sediment basins

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Water flows into a basin (pond) that encourages the water to slow down and sediments to settle.

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Removing litter, organic matter and fine sediments.

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Constructed wetlands

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Water flows into a large man-made wetland that has design features that encourage settling, biological treatment and fine filtration. Lots of plants are used to enhance the treatment and provide habitat for wildlife and fish.

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Removing fine sediments, nutrients and heavy metals.

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Gross pollutant trap

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A physical barrier that traps litter and large organic matter (leaves and twigs) as the water flows through.Gross pollutant traps need to be cleaned and the rubbish taken away. 

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Removing litter and organic matter.

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Porous pavements

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Porous pavements allow water to infiltrate through a surface, rather than run off it. They can be used for footpaths, carparks and areas next to roads.

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Removing fine sediments.

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水敏感型城市设计的特点是什么?

有许多功能可以单独使用,也可以一起使用,使设计对水更加敏感。

特征可以改变水在环境中的流动方式,改善水质。

使用下表,决定你将在这些场景中使用哪个特性:

  • 雨水中没有细小的沉淀物,只有大量的塑料饮料瓶。
  • 从一个大型停车场流出的雨水,带着许多细小的沉积物。

功能

描述

有利于

植物的沼泽地

水流通过一条由碎石和土壤组成的又宽又浅的水道。在河道中生长的植物减缓了水流的速度,促使沉积物沉降并捕获了垃圾和有机物。

清除枯落物、有机物和细沉积物。

沉积盆地

水流入一个盆地(池塘),促使水流放慢速度,沉积物沉淀下来。

清除枯落物、有机物和细沉积物。

人工湿地

水流入一个大型人造湿地,其设计特点是鼓励沉淀、生物处理和精细过滤。大量的植物被用来加强处理,并为野生动物和鱼类提供栖息地。

去除细小沉积物、营养物质和重金属。

总污染物收集器

一种物理屏障,当水流经时,它会阻挡垃圾和大型有机物(树叶和细枝)。总污染物收集器需要清理,垃圾需要运走。

清除垃圾和有机物。

多孔人行道

多孔路面允许水通过表面渗透,而不是从表面流失。它们可以用于人行道,停车场和道路旁边的区域。

去除细小沉积物。

沉淀池的设计是为了减缓水的流速,这样沉积物就能沉淀下来。

人工湿地能很好地去除营养物质、沉积物和重金属。

Water-sensitive urban design – case studies\r\n

Creating a green, cool, resilient city requires a shift towards water-sensitive planning and design.

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By improving the flow of water through the natural and built environment and using and reusing water more wisely, we can achieve these outcomes:

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  • cooler temperatures and reduced energy demands
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  • improved waterway health and habitat
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  • increased canopy cover and retain vegetation
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  • increased open spaces
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  • less money spent on infrastructure to capture and treat run-off
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  • reduced impact of flooding.
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水敏感型城市设计-案例研究

创建一个绿色、凉爽、有弹性的城市需要向对水敏感的规划和设计转变。

通过改善水在自然和建筑环境中的流动,以及更明智地使用和再利用水,我们可以实现以下结果:

  • 温度降低,能源需求减少
  • 改善水道健康和生境
  • 增加树冠覆盖和保留植被
  • 增加休憩用地
  • 用于收集和处理径流的基础设施的资金减少
  • 减少洪水的影响。

用WSUD建设绿色、凉爽、有韧性的城市。

Here are some examples of some projects we have been working on.

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  • Northwest Sydney land and waterways – Reducing flood risk to properties, restoring local creeks and waterways and improving the quality of water.
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  • Johnstons Creek naturalisation – Improving waterway health, stability of the creek banks and increasing native vegetation and habitats.
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  • Our Living River project – Reducing stormwater run-off, by improving the infrastructure that treats stormwater before it enters our rivers.
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以下是我们正在进行的一些项目的例子。


Checking stormwater connections\r\n

Wastewater and stormwater are managed using 2 separate pipes and plumbing systems:

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  • Wastewater is used water that goes down toilets, sinks and drains and into the sewerage system. 
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  • Stormwater is rainwater that runs off hard surfaces like roofs and roads and is carried away by stormwater drains flowing into local waterways.
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检查雨水连接处

废水和雨水的管理采用两个独立的管道和管道系统:

  • 废水是用过的水进入厕所,水槽和排水沟,进入污水系统 
  • 雨水是从屋顶和道路等坚硬表面流下的雨水,被雨水排水沟带走,流入当地水道。
How can stormwater enter our wastewater system?\r\n

When a stormwater pipe is connected incorrectly or rain can enter the wastewater system it can cause overflows, impacting the community and the environment. 

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The condition of stormwater connections can be checked using a couple of methods:

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  • smoke testing – a small amount of environmentally safe, non-hazardous smoke pumped into wastewater pipes to identify possible leaks and incorrect connections. 
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  • visual inspection – a visual check of external downpipe connections and outdoor drains
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Did you know as a property owner, you have a role in maintaining the wastewater pipes and stormwater downpipes on your property.

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雨水如何进入我们的废水系统?

当雨水管道连接错误或 雨水可以进入废水系统,它可以导致溢出,影响社区和环境。

可以使用以下几种方法检查雨水连接的情况:

  • 冒烟测试-将少量对环境安全、无害的烟雾泵入污水管道,以识别可能的泄漏和错误连接。 
  • 目视检查-目视检查外部落水管接驳处及户外排水渠

你知不知道,作为一个业主,你有一个角色,维护废水管道和雨水落水管在你的财产。

落水管与屋顶排水沟相连。


Harvesting stormwater for recycling\r\n

Collecting and treating stormwater so it can be recycled is called stormwater harvesting.
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Stormwater harvesting can help reduce demand on drinking water supplies by providing another water source for things like:

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  • watering sports fields and gardens
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  • flushing toilets
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  • washing machines (in some cases).
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These activities don't require water to be treated to a drinking water standard.

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收集雨水循环利用

收集和处理雨水,使其可以循环利用被称为雨水收集

雨水收集可以为以下用途提供另一种水源,从而帮助减少对饮用水的需求:

  • 给运动场和花园浇水
  • 冲洗厕所
  • 洗衣机(在某些情况下)。

这些活动不需要用水处理到饮用水标准。

Finding practical and cost-effective stormwater harvesting options is a challenge. Some of the problems are:

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  • finding suitable space to build large storage and treatment facilities
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  • treating the stormwater so it's good quality
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  • finding efficient ways to reuse the water, including transporting the treated stormwater to where it's needed
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  • making sure stormwater harvesting doesn't damage waterways by reducing natural flows.
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寻找实用和经济的雨水收集方案是一个挑战。其中一些问题是:

  • 寻找合适的空间建造大型储存和处理设施
  • 把雨水处理成高质量的
  • 寻找再利用水的有效方法,包括将处理过的雨水运输到需要它的地方
  • 确保雨水收集不会通过减少自然流量而破坏水道。

Flood mitigation\r\n"}}" id="text-2134e0fa78" class="cmp-text">

防洪减灾

Sydney has a variable climate. We can’t always predict when it will be dry or it will rain.
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Heavy rain can cause urban waterways to rise quickly. It may take only minutes for fast-moving floodwater to fill a waterway.

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We work closely with local councils and other agencies to improve the health of our stormwater system and protect people and properties from flooding.

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Our current projects will help protect people and their property from flooding during storms and heavy rain.

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To be active in what is happening in your local community, we have Sydney Water Talk. Customers get to share their opinions about projects, so you can help us shape and create liveable communities.

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Learn more about how to minimise your flood risk with SES NSW education programs.

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悉尼气候多变。我们不能总是预测天气何时干燥或何时下雨。

暴雨会导致城市水道迅速上升。快速流动的洪水可能只需要几分钟就会填满一条水道。

我们与地方议会和其他机构密切合作,以改善我们的雨水系统,保护人民和财产免受洪水侵袭。

我们的当前的项目将有助于在暴风雨和暴雨期间保护人们和他们的财产免受洪水侵袭。

要积极参与你所在社区正在发生的事情,我们有悉尼水谈.客户可以分享他们对项目的意见,所以你可以帮助我们塑造和创建宜居的社区。

了解更多有关减低洪水风险的方法SES NSW教必威客服在线育项目

雨水通道可以为宜居社区做出贡献。


自导的远足

我们将帮助老师们安排他们自己的当地水路旅行。



Run-off\r\n

Rainwater that runs over the Earth’s surface and into waterways rather than being absorbed into the soil.

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径流

雨水流过地球表面进入水道而不是被土壤吸收。

Infiltration\r\n

Water that soaks into the ground during and after rain.

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渗透

雨水:雨中或雨后渗入地下的水

Percolation\r\n

Percolation is when water seeps deeper into tiny spaces in the soil and rock.

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渗滤

渗透是指水渗入土壤和岩石中的微小空间。

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