废水处理

What is wastewater?
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Wastewater is the water you've used in your homes, schools, businesses and industries. It goes down drains from sinks, baths, showers, laundries and toilets and other drains inside buildings. It's 99% water. The remaining 1% is made up of things you've added to water as you've used it.

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什么是废水?

废水是您在房屋,学校,企业和行业中使用的水。它从水槽,浴室,淋浴,洗衣店和厕所以及建筑物内的其他排水管中流下水。这是99%的水。其余的1%由您在水中添加到水中的东西组成。


Where does wastewater come from?\r\n"}}" id="T1" class="cmp-text">

废水从何而来?


Who makes wastewater?
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You do! About 70% of Greater Sydney's wastewater is made inside the home.
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\r\nYou're part of the urban water cycle. Your interaction with wastewater may seem small, but you're one of nearly 5 million people making wastewater every day.
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\r\nYour interaction with wastewater connects to:

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We're all connected, so what you do can make a big difference.

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谁制造废水?

你做!大悉尼的废水中约有70%是在房屋内部制造的。

您是城市水周期的一部分。您与废水的互动似乎很小,但是您每天都有近500万人之一。

您与废水的互动连接到:

我们都连接了,所以您所做的可以带来很大的不同。

What kinds of things are in wastewater?
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There are a lot of drains inside your home that take wastewater away. Do you know where all the drains are inside your home?

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废水中有什么样的东西?

您的房屋内部有很多排水口,可以将废水赶走。您知道家里所有的排水管在哪里吗?

您将房屋,学校或业务内部的排水所放入废水中。

Investigate some of the common things we put down drains in our homes.

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调查我们在家里放下排水的一些常见事物。

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Drains

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Common things in wastewater

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  • Kitchen sink
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  • Dishwasher
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  • Washing up detergents, dishwasher tablets and cleaning products
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  • Dirty washing up water
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  • Food scraps
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  • Fats, oil and grease from frying pans and dirty dishes
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  • Cleaning chemicals
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  • Rubbish that gets washed down sinks, like apple stickers
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排水

废水中的常见事物

  • 厨房水槽
  • 洗碗机
  • 清洗洗涤剂,洗碗机和清洁产品
  • 脏水
  • 食物废料
  • 油炸锅和脏盘子中的脂肪,油和油脂
  • 清洁化学品
  • 像苹果贴纸一样被洗净的水槽被洗净的垃圾

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Drains

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Common things in wastewater

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  • Toilet
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  • Shower
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  • Bath
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  • Sink
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  • Poo, pee, vomit
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  • Toilet paper
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  • Soaps, shampoos and conditioners
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  • Cleaning chemicals
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  • Dirt from washing your body
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  • Hair
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  • Grit, like sand
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  • Wet wipes
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  • Tissues
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  • Cotton tips
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  • Dental floss
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  • Tampons, pads and their wrappers, condoms
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排水

废水中的常见事物

  • 洗手间
  • 淋浴
  • 洗澡
  • 下沉
  • 便便,小便,呕吐
  • 卫生纸
  • 肥皂,洗发水和护发素
  • 清洁化学品
  • 从洗身体的污垢
  • 头发
  • 勇气,像沙子
  • 湿纸巾
  • 组织
  • 棉提示
  • 牙线
  • 卫生棉条,垫子及其包装纸,避孕套

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Drains

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Common things in wastewater

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  • Sink
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  • Washing machine
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  • Washing detergents and fabric softeners
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  • Dirt from washing your hands and clothes
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  • Grit, like sand
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  • Cleaning chemicals like bleach, ammonia and disinfectants
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  • Other strong chemicals, like paints and solvents
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排水

废水中的常见事物

  • 下沉
  • 洗衣机
  • 洗涤剂和织物软化剂
  • 用洗手和衣服用污垢
  • 勇气,像沙子
  • 清洁化学物质,例如漂白剂,氨和消毒剂
  • 其他强大的化学物质,例如油漆和溶剂

你可知道?

在所有废水管道阻塞中,约有75%涉及湿湿巾。这些堵塞会导致废水(污水)溢出到房屋或小溪中。


What can you do to help?\r\n"}}" id="T4" class="cmp-text">

你能帮什么忙?

We all have a role to play in sustainable water management. Your interaction with wastewater connects you to the urban water cycle and the environment.
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Find out how much wastewater you make and what's in it by doing a wastewater audit and sharing your plan with friends and family.
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One of the best things you can do is make sure you only flush pee, poo and toilet paper down the toilet!

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我们都在可持续水管理中发挥作用。您与废水的互动将您连接到城市水上周期和环境。

找出您造成了多少废水以及通过做什么废水审核并与朋友和家人分享您的计划。

您能做的最好的事情之一就是确保您只将小便,便便和卫生纸冲到厕所!

Prevent and dispose of problem substances\r\n"}}" id="text-a27d92f67f" class="cmp-text">

防止和处置问题物质

Effects on wastewater systems and/or environment

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  • Toxic for many aquatic species.
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  • Make biosolids unusable.
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Pollution prevention and disposal options

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  • Never tip unused pesticides or flea rinses down the drain.
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  • Dispose of leftover products using your local council's Household Chemical CleanOut services.
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对废水系统和/或环境的影响

  • 对许多水生物种有毒。
  • 制作生物固体无法使用。

预防污染和处置选择

  • 切勿将未使用的农药或跳蚤冲洗掉在排水管上。
  • 使用地方议会的剩余产品处置剩余产品家用化学清洁服务。

Effects on wastewater systems and/or environment

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  • Block wastewater pipes.
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  • Increase biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Increased BOD can corrode wastewater system infrastructure like concrete pipes, and increase the energy needed for treatment. Increased BOD also reduces the amount of oxygen in creeks and rivers, harming aquatic life.
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Pollution prevention and disposal options

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  • Make sure all sinks have a sink strainer fitted to trap food waste. Add this to the compost or put it in the garbage bin.
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  • Ensure oily products like food scraps, excess cooking oil, unused milk and other leftovers are placed in sealed containers and put in the garbage bin.
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  • Trade waste from restaurants and cafes can be disposed of at greasy waste treatment depots through Sydney Water’s commercial trade wastewater program.
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对废水系统和/或环境的影响

  • 块废水管。
  • 增加生化氧的需求(BOD)。BOD增加可以腐蚀废水系统基础设施,例如混凝土管道,并增加治疗所需的能量。BOD的增加还减少了小溪和河流中的氧气量,从而损害了水生生物。

预防污染和处置选择

  • 确保所有水槽都装有一个水槽过滤器,以捕获食物垃圾。将其添加到堆肥中或将其放入垃圾桶中。
  • 确保将食品碎屑,多余的食用油,未使用的牛奶和其他剩菜等油性产品放在密封的容器中,并放入垃圾桶中。
  • 可以通过悉尼水的油腻废物处理库处置餐馆和咖啡馆的贸易废物商业贸易废水程序。

Effects on wastewater systems and/or environment

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  • Contain heavy metals toxic to aquatic life.
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  • Affect biosolid quality.
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  • Paint strippers can release flammable or explosive gases endangering workers and form unsightly slicks in waterways.
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Pollution prevention and disposal options

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  • Wash paintbrushes and rollers in a bucket instead of allowing paint to enter the wastewater system. Empty paint in the garden or put in sealed containers in the garbage bin.
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  • Dispose of unwanted paint and paint-related products through the Household Chemical CleanOut service, or ask your local council about other disposal services.
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对废水系统和/或环境的影响

  • 含有有毒的重金属生活。
  • 影响生物固体质量。
  • 油漆脱衣舞娘可以释放易燃的或爆炸性的气体危害工人,并在水道中形成难看的光滑。

预防污染和处置选择

  • 将画笔和滚筒洗在水桶中,而不是让油漆进入废水系统。花园中的空油漆或放入垃圾桶中的密封容器。
  • 通过不需要的油漆和油漆相关产品家用化学清洁服务,或向您的地方议会询问其他处置服务。

Effects on wastewater systems and/or environment

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  • Toxic to bacteria used in wastewater treatment.
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  • Toxic to aquatic life.
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  • Forms unsightly slicks in waterways.
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  • Can release flammable or explosive gases endangering workers.
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Pollution prevention and disposal options

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  • Dispose of unwanted paint and paint-related products through the Household Chemical CleanOut service, or ask your local council about other disposal services.
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对废水系统和/或环境的影响

  • 对废水处理中使用的细菌有毒。
  • 对水生生物有毒。
  • 在水道上表现出难看的光滑。
  • 可以释放危害工人的易燃或爆炸性气体。

预防污染和处置选择

  • 通过不需要的油漆和油漆相关产品家用化学清洁服务,或向您的地方议会询问其他处置服务。

Effects on wastewater systems and/or environment

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  • Block wastewater pipes causing overflows.
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  • Affect the efficient operation and cost of treatment processes including sorting, screening and transporting for disposal.
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  • Can pass into waterways if small enough.
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Pollution prevention and disposal options

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  1. Make sure all sinks have a sink strainer to trap solid items.
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  3. Never throw solid objects into the toilet. Use a bin for unwanted or used items including disposable nappies, condoms, cotton-buds, tampons and cigarette butts.
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对废水系统和/或环境的影响

  • 阻止废水管导致溢出。
  • 影响治疗过程的有效操作和成本,包括分类,筛选和运输以处置。
  • 如果足够小,可以进入水道。

预防污染和处置选择

  1. 确保所有水槽都有一个水槽过滤器来捕获固体物品。
  2. 切勿将固体物体扔进厕所。使用垃圾箱用于不需要或用过的物品,包括一次性尿布,避孕套,棉布,棉布和香烟屁股。

How is wastewater cleaned?\r\n

Treating wastewater is about removing or breaking down what people have added to the water that leaves their home, school or business.

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废水如何清洁?

处理废水是关于去除或分解人们在离开家,学校或商业的水中添加的东西。

Stages of wastewater treatment\r\n

Wastewater can go through up to four levels of treatment called primary, secondary, tertiary and advanced treatment to remove waste.

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Different plants treat wastewater to different levels. We treat the wastewater so it's fit for purpose. This means we treat wastewater to suit the environment (creek, river or ocean) that will receive it, or to suit how it will be reused.

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废水处理阶段

废水最多可以接受四个级别的治疗,称为原发性,二级,第三级和先进的治疗,以清除废物。

不同的植物将废水处理为不同的水平。我们处理废水,因此适合目的。这意味着我们将废水处理以适合将接受环境或适合其重新使用的环境(溪流,河流或海洋)。

主要治疗是治疗的第一阶段。

Primary treatment\r\n

Primary treatment removes large solids from wastewater.

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Screens trap and remove things such as food scraps, wet wipes, cotton tips and plastic (called screenings) as wastewater flows through. Grit tanks cause small, heavy particles like sand (grit) to sink to the bottom of a tank and a scraper removes it.

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Sedimentation tanks allow solids (sludge) to settle to the bottom, and oils and grease (scum) float to the top. Scrapers at the top and bottom of the tanks remove the sludge and scum, which are then treated to produce biosolids.

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初级治疗

一级治疗可去除废水中的大型固体。

屏幕陷阱并清除食物碎屑,湿湿巾,棉花尖和塑料等东西(称为放映)随着废水流过。砂砾罐会导致小的沉重颗粒(如沙子(砂砾))下沉到储罐的底部,然后将其清除。

沉降坦克允许固体(污泥)定居在底部和油脂(油脂)(油脂)(浮渣)漂浮到顶部。储罐顶部和底部的刮刀清除污泥和浮渣,然后对其进行处理以产生生物固体

Secondary treatment\r\n

We add microorganisms (activated sludge) to the wastewater. The microorganisms break down nutrients (like nitrogen and phosphorous) and small organic solids.

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Learn more about Removing Nutrients in Wastewater (192KB).

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Next, we separate the activated sludge from the treated wastewater. The treated wastewater flows to tertiary treatment. The activated sludge is turned into biosolids.

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次要治疗

我们增加微生物(活性污泥)到废水。微生物分解了营养(例如氮和磷)和小有机固体。

学习更多关于去除废水中的营养(192KB)

接下来,我们将活性污泥与处理过的废水区分开。处理的废水流向第三纪。活性污泥变成生物固体。

次要治疗使用细菌分解营养。

三级治疗可去除非常小的颗粒。

Tertiary treatment\r\n

We filter the water and disinfect it with chlorine or ultraviolet light (UV). This kills any remaining microorganisms. 

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Advanced treatment

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At some plants, we use advanced processess to further treat the water.

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We use membrane technology like microfiltration, ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis.

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This removes trace nutrients and dissolved salts in the water.

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三级治疗

我们过滤水,并用氯或紫外光线(紫外线)。这杀死了所有剩余的微生物。

高级治疗

在某些植物中,我们使用先进的过程来进一步治疗水。

我们用像技术一样微滤,,,,超滤或者反渗透

这样可以清除痕量的营养和溶解的盐分。


How are polymers used in water treatment?\r\n

Investigate how!

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聚合物如何用于水处理?

调查如何!


What happens to treated water and solids?
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Treated water

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We treat wastewater so clean water can be safely returned to the environment or reused.

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We're always finding new ways to recycle water. The treated wastewater (recycled water) can be used:

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  • in homes and businesses to water gardens and flush toilets
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  • in industry
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  • to fight fires
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  • to irrigate parks, farms and sportsfields
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  • to maintain river flow.
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Find out more about water recycling and How we purify our recycled water.

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Some treated wastewater is returned to creeks, rivers and oceans around Sydney. These important ecosystems are each unique environments.

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Environmental protection licences tell us:

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  • what quality our treated wastewater needs to be before it's released into the environment
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  • how and when we monitor water quality and report our results.
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Our monitoring program is consistent with the Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality.
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经过处理的水和固体会怎样?

处理后的水

我们处理废水,因此可以安全地将干净的水归还环境或重复使用。

我们总是找到回收水的新方法。可以使用经过处理的废水(再生水):

  • 在房屋和企业中,水花园和冲洗厕所
  • 在工业中
  • 打火
  • 灌溉公园,农场和运动场
  • 维持河流。

了解更多有关水回收我们如何净化回收水

一些经过处理的废水被送回悉尼周围的小溪,河流和海洋。这些重要的生态系统是每个独特的环境。

环境保护许可证告诉我们:

  • 我们处理的废水在将其发布到环境之前需要采取什么质量
  • 我们如何以及何时监视水质和报告我们的结果

我们的监视程序与澳大利亚和新西兰新鲜和海水质量指南

Solids and sludge\r\n

We reuse biosolids on farms.

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The grit and screenings captured in wastewater treatment are sent to landfill. The sludge collected is turned into a fertiliser called biosolids.

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Biosolids are used in agriculture, forestry and rehabilitation. 100% of our biosolids are beneficially reused, with at least 70% used in agriculture.

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Find out more about solids recycling.

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固体和污泥

我们在农场上重用生物固体。

在废水处理中捕获的砂砾和筛查被送往垃圾填埋场。收集的污泥变成了称为生物固体的肥料。

生物固体用于农业,林业和康复。我们的生物固体中有100%是有益地重复使用的,至少有70%用于农业。

了解更多有关固体回收

我们在农场上重用生物固体。


How can you learn more about treatment plants?\r\n

You can learn more about some of our wastewater treatment and water recycling plants.

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您如何了解有关治疗厂的更多信息?

您可以了解有关我们的一些废水处理和水回收厂的更多信息。


What experiments can you do?\r\n

Take a look at the videos below and do an experiment at home or at school.

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您可以做什么实验?

看看下面的视频,并在家或学校进行实验。


教师资源

废水中有什么?(282KB)-事实说明书

去除废水中的营养(192KB)- 事实说明书

废水审核- 考虑一下您制造的废水以及其中的废水。

雨水审核- 调查雨水撞到坚硬的表面时会发生什么。

脂肪,油和油脂实用研究(273KB)- 找出当脂肪,油脂和油脂从排水管上掉下来时会发生什么。

密度实践研究(273KB)-找出我们如何使用物质的特性来帮助分离混合物。

从管道中擦除实践研究(235kb)-测试厕纸,湿巾和我们放下厕所的其他物品之间的区别。

制作一个简单的滤水器(182KB)-实验。

第4阶段科学分开混合课程计划(196KB)- 制作一个简单的滤水器。

第4阶段科学沉积和倾斜课程计划(198KB)-分开混合物。

制作模拟水样品(460KB)-实验。

词汇表- 找到关键字和行业术语的定义。


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Biosolids \r\n

A solid substance formed from the by-products of wastewater treatment. These solids can be beneficially used by agriculture or forestry.

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生物固体

由废水处理的副产品形成的固体物质。这些固体可以由农业或林业有益地使用。

Biochemical oxygen demand\r\n

A measure of the amount of oxygen used by microorganisms in water when breaking down nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.

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生化氧的需求

分解氮和磷等养分时,微生物在水中使用的氧气量的量度。

Aquatic\r\n

Living or growing in water.

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在水中生活或生长。

Screenings\r\n

Solid materials like plastic removed from wastewater by screens.

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放映

通过屏幕从废水中去除的塑料(例如塑料)。

Sedimentation\r\n

Sedimentation is a physical wastewater treatment process used to settle out suspended solids in water under the influence of gravity.

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沉降

沉积是一种物理废水处理过程,用于在重力影响下将悬浮的固体固定在水中。

Sludge\r\n

Solid matter that is removed during wastewater treatment. It can be processed into a material called biosolids.

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污泥

在废水处理过程中去除的固体物质。它可以加工成一种称为生物固体的材料。

Scum\r\n

Any material that floats to the surface of wastewater during treatment, usually removed in sedimentation tanks.

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浮渣

任何在处理过程中漂浮在废水表面的材料,通常在沉积罐中去除。

Microorganisms\r\n

Organisms that are too small to be seen without a microscope.

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微生物

太小的生物无法在没有显微镜的情况下看到。

Ultraviolet\r\n

Invisible radiation present in the ultraviolet range of light.

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紫外线

无形的辐射存在于光线的紫外线范围。

Membranes\r\n

Thin layers of material that allow only some substances from a solution to pass through them.

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薄的材料层,仅允许溶液中的某些物质通过它们。

Microfiltration\r\n

A process to remove tiny particles from a liquid or solution by passing it through a filter.

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微滤

通过将其通过过滤器将其从液体或溶液中去除微小颗粒的过程。

Ultrafiltration\r\n

The process of removing invisible particles, like bacteria, from a liquid or solution by passing it through a filter.

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超滤

去除不可见颗粒(如细菌)的过程从液体或溶液中通过过滤器通过液体或溶液。

Reverse osmosis\r\n

A process where a solution is forced under pressure through a semi-permeable membrane, separating pure water from dissolved salts.

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反渗透

一个过程,将溶液通过半渗透膜强迫在压力下,从而将纯净水与溶解的盐分开。


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