废水处理

What is wastewater?
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Wastewater is the water you've used in your homes, schools, businesses and industries. It goes down drains from sinks, baths, showers, laundries and toilets and other drains inside buildings. It's 99% water. The remaining 1% is made up of things you've added to water as you've used it.

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什么是废水?

废水是你在家里、学校、企业和工业中使用的水。水从水池、浴室、淋浴间、洗衣房和厕所的排水沟流入建筑物内的其他排水沟。99%是水。剩下的1%是你在用水时添加到水里的东西。


Where does wastewater come from?\r\n"}}" id="T1" class="cmp-text">

废水从何而来?


Who makes wastewater?
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You do! About 70% of Greater Sydney's wastewater is made inside the home.
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\r\nYou're part of the urban water cycle. Your interaction with wastewater may seem small, but you're one of nearly 5 million people making wastewater every day.
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\r\nYour interaction with wastewater connects to:

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We're all connected, so what you do can make a big difference.

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谁制造废水?

你做的!大悉尼地区约70%的废水是在家庭内部产生的。

你是城市水循环的一部分。你与废水的互动可能看起来很小,但你是每天产生废水的近500万人中的一员。

你与废水的互动与以下有关:

我们都是相互联系的,所以你所做的会产生很大的影响。


What kinds of things are in wastewater?
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There are a lot of drains inside your home that take wastewater away. Do you know where all the drains are inside your home?

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废水里有什么东西?

你家里有很多排水管把废水带走。你知道你家的排水管都在哪里吗?

你倒在家里、学校或公司下水道里的东西会变成废水。

Investigate some of the common things we put down drains in our homes.

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调查一下我们放在家里下水道里的一些常见的东西。

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Drains

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Common things in wastewater

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  • Kitchen sink
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  • Dishwasher
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  • Washing up detergents, dishwasher tablets and cleaning products
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  • Dirty washing up water
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  • Food scraps
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  • Fats, oil and grease from frying pans and dirty dishes
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  • Cleaning chemicals
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  • Rubbish that gets washed down sinks, like apple stickers
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下水道

废水中常见的东西

  • 厨房的水槽
  • 洗碗机
  • 清洗洗涤剂,洗碗机药片和清洁产品
  • 脏的洗碗水
  • 食物残渣
  • 来自煎锅和脏盘子的脂肪、油和油脂
  • 化学清洗
  • 被冲进水槽的垃圾,比如苹果贴纸

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Drains

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Common things in wastewater

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  • Toilet
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  • Shower
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  • Bath
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  • Sink
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  • Poo, pee, vomit
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  • Toilet paper
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  • Soaps, shampoos and conditioners
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  • Cleaning chemicals
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  • Dirt from washing your body
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  • Hair
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  • Grit, like sand
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  • Wet wipes
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  • Tissues
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  • Cotton buds
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  • Dental floss
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  • Tampons, pads and their wrappers, condoms
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下水道

废水中常见的东西

  • 厕所。。。
  • 淋浴
  • 水槽
  • 拉屎,尿尿,呕吐
  • 厕纸
  • 肥皂、洗发水和护发素
  • 化学清洗
  • 清洗身体产生的污垢
  • 头发
  • 砂砾,像沙子
  • 湿巾
  • 组织
  • 棉花花蕾
  • 牙线
  • 卫生棉条,卫生巾及其包装,避孕套

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Drains

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Common things in wastewater

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  • Sink
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  • Washing machine
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  • Washing detergents and fabric softeners
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  • Dirt from washing your hands and clothes
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  • Grit, like sand
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  • Cleaning chemicals like bleach, ammonia and disinfectants
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  • Other strong chemicals, like paints and solvents
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下水道

废水中常见的东西

  • 水槽
  • 洗衣机
  • 洗涤洗涤剂和织物柔顺剂
  • 洗手和洗衣服时留下的污垢
  • 砂砾,像沙子
  • 漂白剂、氨水和消毒剂等清洁化学品
  • 其他强化学物质,如油漆和溶剂

你知道吗?

约75%的污水管道堵塞与湿巾有关。这些堵塞会导致污水溢出到家庭或小溪中。


What can you do to help?\r\n"}}" id="T4" class="cmp-text">

你能帮上什么忙?

We all have a role to play in sustainable water management. Your interaction with wastewater connects you to the urban water cycle and the environment.
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Find out how much wastewater you make and what's in it by doing a wastewater audit and sharing your plan with friends and family.
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One of the best things you can do is make sure you only flush pee, poo and toilet paper down the toilet!

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我们每个人都可以在可持续的水资源管理中发挥作用。你与废水的互动将你与城市水循环和环境联系在一起。

搞清楚你生产了多少废水,里面有什么废水审计并与朋友和家人分享你的计划。

你能做的最好的事情之一就是确保你只把尿、便便和厕纸冲进厕所!

Prevent and dispose of problem substances\r\n"}}" id="text-a27d92f67f" class="cmp-text">

预防和处理问题物质

Effects on wastewater systems and/or environment

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  • Toxic for many aquatic species.
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  • Make biosolids unusable.
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Pollution prevention and disposal options

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  • Never tip unused pesticides or flea rinses down the drain.
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  • Dispose of leftover products using your local council's Household Chemical CleanOut services.
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对废水系统和/或环境的影响

  • 对许多水生物种是有毒的。
  • 使有机固体残无法使用。

污染预防和处置方案

  • 不要将未使用的杀虫剂或跳蚤冲洗液倒进下水道。
  • 使用当地议会的方法处理剩余的产品家用化学品大扫除服务。

Effects on wastewater systems and/or environment

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  • Block wastewater pipes.
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  • Increase biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Increased BOD can corrode wastewater system infrastructure like concrete pipes, and increase the energy needed for treatment. Increased BOD also reduces the amount of oxygen in creeks and rivers, harming aquatic life.
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Pollution prevention and disposal options

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  • Make sure all sinks have a sink strainer fitted to trap food waste. Add this to the compost or put it in the garbage bin.
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  • Ensure oily products like food scraps, excess cooking oil, unused milk and other leftovers are placed in sealed containers and put in the garbage bin.
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  • Trade waste from restaurants and cafes can be disposed of at greasy waste treatment depots through Sydney Water’s commercial trade wastewater program.
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对废水系统和/或环境的影响

  • 堵塞污水管道。
  • 增加生化需氧量(BOD)。BOD的增加会腐蚀废水系统的基础设施,如混凝土管道,并增加处理所需的能源。BOD的增加还会减少小溪和河流中的氧气量,伤害水生生物。

污染预防和处置方案

  • 确保所有的水槽都安装了过滤器,可以过滤食物垃圾。把它加到堆肥里或放进垃圾桶里。
  • 确保食物残渣、多余的食用油、未用过的牛奶和其他剩饭剩菜等油性产品放在密封的容器中并放入垃圾桶。
  • 来自餐馆和咖啡馆的商业废物可以通过悉尼水务公司的油腻废物处理站处理商业贸易废水程序。

Effects on wastewater systems and/or environment

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  • Contain heavy metals toxic to aquatic life.
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  • Affect biosolid quality.
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  • Paint strippers can release flammable or explosive gases endangering workers, and form unsightly slicks in waterways.
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Pollution prevention and disposal options

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  • Wash paintbrushes and rollers in a bucket instead of allowing paint to enter the wastewater system. Empty paint in the garden or put it in sealed containers in the garbage bin.
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  • Dispose of unwanted paint and paint-related products through the Household Chemical CleanOut service, or ask your local council about other disposal services.
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对废水系统和/或环境的影响

  • 含有有毒的重金属水生的生活。
  • 影响生物固体质量。
  • 脱漆机会释放易燃易爆气体,危害工人安全,并在水道中形成难看的油渍。

污染预防和处置方案

  • 在桶中清洗画笔和滚筒,而不是让油漆进入废水系统。清空花园中的油漆,或将其放入密封的垃圾桶中。
  • 处理不需要的油漆及与油漆有关的产品家用化学品大扫除或向当地议会询问其他处理服务。

Effects on wastewater systems and/or environment

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  • Toxic to bacteria used in wastewater treatment.
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  • Toxic to aquatic life.
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  • Forms unsightly slicks in waterways.
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  • Can release flammable or explosive gases, endangering workers.
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Pollution prevention and disposal options

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  • Dispose of unwanted paint and paint-related products through the Household Chemical CleanOut service, or ask your local council about other disposal services.
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对废水系统和/或环境的影响

  • 对废水处理中使用的细菌有毒。
  • 对水生生物有毒。
  • 在水道中形成难看的浮油。
  • 可释放易燃或易爆气体,危及工人安全。

污染预防和处置方案

  • 处理不需要的油漆及与油漆有关的产品家用化学品大扫除或向当地议会询问其他处理服务。

Effects on wastewater systems and/or environment

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  • Block wastewater pipes causing overflows.
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  • Affect the efficient operation and cost of treatment processes including sorting, screening and transporting for disposal.
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  • Can pass into waterways if small enough.
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Pollution prevention and disposal options

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  • Make sure all sinks have a sink strainer to trap solid items.
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  • Never throw solid objects into the toilet. Use a bin for unwanted or used items, including disposable nappies, condoms, cotton buds, tampons and cigarette butts.
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对废水系统和/或环境的影响

  • 堵塞污水管道,造成污水溢出。
  • 影响处理过程的高效运行和成本,包括分拣、筛选和运输处理。
  • 如果足够小,可以进入水道。

污染预防和处置方案

  • 确保所有的水槽都有一个过滤器来过滤固体物品。
  • 不要把固体物体扔进厕所。用垃圾桶放不需要的或用过的物品,包括一次性尿布,避孕套,棉签,卫生棉条和烟头。

How is wastewater cleaned?\r\n

Treating wastewater is about removing or breaking down what people have added to the water that leaves their home, school or business.

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废水如何净化?

废水处理是指去除或分解人们在离开他们的家、学校或企业的水中添加的东西。

Stages of wastewater treatment\r\n

Wastewater can go through up to 4 levels of treatment – primary, secondary, tertiary and advanced – to remove waste.

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Different sites treat wastewater to different levels. We treat the wastewater so it's fit for purpose. This means we treat wastewater to suit the environment (creek, river or ocean) that will receive it, or to suit how it will be reused.

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污水处理的阶段

废水最多可经过四级处理——一级、二级、三级和高级——以清除废物。

不同的场地处理废水的水平不同。我们对废水进行处理,使之适合使用。这意味着我们处理废水的方式要符合接收废水的环境(小溪、河流或海洋),或者要符合废水再利用的方式。

初级治疗是治疗的第一阶段。

Primary treatment\r\n

Primary treatment removes large solids from wastewater.

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Screens trap and remove things such as food scraps, wet wipes, cotton buds and plastic (called screenings) as wastewater flows through. Grit tanks cause small, heavy particles like sand (grit) to sink to the bottom of a tank and a scraper removes it.

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Sedimentation tanks allow solids (sludge) to settle to the bottom, and oils and grease (scum) float to the top. Scrapers at the top and bottom of the tanks remove the sludge and scum, which are then treated to produce biosolids.

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主要治疗

一级处理去除废水中的大块固体。

过滤网可以捕捉和清除食物残渣、湿纸巾、棉签和塑料(称为放映),当废水流过时。砂砾罐会使小而重的颗粒,如沙子(砂砾)沉到罐底,然后用刮板将其清除。

沉积储罐允许固体(污泥)沉淀到底部,油脂(人渣)浮到顶部。罐体顶部和底部的刮刀会清除污泥和浮渣,然后进行处理生产有机固体残

Secondary treatment\r\n

We add microorganisms (activated sludge) to the wastewater. The microorganisms break down nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous, and small organic solids.

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Learn more about Removing nutrients in wastewater (192KB).

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Next, we separate the activated sludge from the treated wastewater. The treated wastewater flows to tertiary treatment. The activated sludge is turned into biosolids.

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二级处理

我们添加微生物(活性污泥)处理废水。微生物分解氮、磷等营养物质和小型有机固体。

了解更多关于去除废水中的营养素(192KB)

接下来,我们将活性污泥从处理过的废水中分离出来。经处理的废水流入三级处理。活性污泥被转化为生物固体。

二级治疗利用细菌分解营养物质。

三级处理可以去除非常小的颗粒。

Tertiary treatment\r\n

We filter the water and disinfect it with chlorine or ultraviolet light (UV). This kills any remaining microorganisms.
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Advanced treatment
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At some sites, we use advanced processes to further treat the water.

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We use membrane technology like microfiltration, ultrafiltration or reverse osmosisThis removes trace nutrients and dissolved salts in the water.

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三级处理

我们过滤水然后用氯消毒或者紫外线(紫外线)。这会杀死所有残留的微生物。

先进的治疗

在一些地点,我们使用先进的工艺进一步处理水。

我们使用技术微滤超滤反渗透这样可以去除水中微量的营养物质和溶解的盐分。


How are polymers used in water treatment?\r\n

Investigate how!

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聚合物如何用于水处理?

调查如何!


What happens to treated water and solids?
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Treated water

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We treat wastewater so clean water can be safely returned to the environment or reused.

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We're always finding new ways to recycle water. The treated wastewater (recycled water) can be used:

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  • in homes and businesses to water gardens and flush toilets
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  • in industry
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  • to fight fires
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  • to irrigate parks, farms and sports fields
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  • to maintain river flow.
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Find out more about water recycling and How we purify our recycled water.

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Some treated wastewater is returned to creeks, rivers and oceans around Sydney. These important ecosystems are each unique environments.

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Environmental protection licences tell us:

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  • what quality our treated wastewater needs to be before it's released into the environment
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  • how and when we monitor water quality and report our results.
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Our monitoring program is consistent with the Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality.
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处理过的水和固体会发生什么?

处理过的水

我们处理废水,使清洁的水可以安全地返回环境或重复使用。

我们总是在寻找循环用水的新方法。处理后的废水(循环水)可用于:

  • 在家庭和企业浇灌花园和冲厕所
  • 在工业
  • 扑灭火灾
  • 灌溉公园、农场和运动场
  • 维持河流的流动。

了解更多关于水回收利用而且我们如何净化循环水

一些处理过的废水被排入悉尼周边的小溪、河流和海洋。这些重要的生态系统都是独特的环境。

环境保护牌照告诉我们:

  • 我们处理过的废水在排放到环境中之前需要达到什么样的质量
  • 我们如何以及何时监测水质和报告我们的结果

我们的监控程序与澳洲及新西兰淡水及海水水质指引

Solids and sludge\r\n

We reuse biosolids on farms.

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The grit and screenings captured in wastewater treatment are sent to landfill. The sludge collected is turned into a fertiliser called biosolids.

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Biosolids are used in agriculture, forestry and rehabilitation. 100% of our biosolids are beneficially reused, with at least 70% used in agriculture.

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Find out more about solids recycling.

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固体和污泥

我们在农场重复使用生物固体。

废水处理中捕获的砂砾和筛分被送往垃圾填埋场。收集的污泥被转化为一种叫做生物固体的肥料。

生物固体用于农业、林业和康复。我们100%的生物固体被有益地重复利用,其中至少70%用于农业。

了解更多关于固体垃圾回收

我们在农场重复使用生物固体。


How can you learn more about water resource recovery facilities?\r\n

You can learn more about some of our water resource recovery facilities.

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怎样才能更多地了解水资源回收设施?

你可在此了解本署的部分水资源回收设施。


What experiments can you do?\r\n

Take a look at the videos below, and do an experiment at home or at school.

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你能做什么实验?

看看下面的视频,在家里或学校做一个实验。


教师资源

废水里有什么?(282 kb)- - - - - -简报

去除废水中的营养素(192KB)-简报

废水审计-想想你产生了多少废水,里面有什么

雨水审计-研究雨水撞击坚硬表面时会发生什么

油脂、油及润滑脂的实际调查(273KB)-看看当脂肪、油和油脂流入下水道时会发生什么

密度实际调查(273KB)- - - - - -了解我们如何利用物质的性质来帮助分离混合物

清除管道的实际调查(235KB)- - - - - -测试厕纸、湿巾和其他我们放在马桶里的东西之间的区别

制作一个简单的滤水器(182KB)- - - - - -实验

第四阶段科学分离混合物课程计划(196KB)-做一个简单的水过滤器

第四阶段科学沉淀和倒瓶课程计划(198KB)- - - - - -分离混合物

制作模拟水样(460KB)- - - - - -实验

术语表-关键词和行业术语的定义


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Biosolids \r\n

A solid substance formed from the by-products of wastewater treatment. These solids can be beneficially used by agriculture or forestry.

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有机固体残

废水处理的副产品形成的固体物质。这些固体可用于农业或林业。

Biochemical oxygen demand\r\n

A measure of the amount of oxygen used by microorganisms in water when breaking down nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.

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生化需氧量

一种衡量水中微生物在分解氮、磷等营养物质时所消耗氧气量的方法。

Aquatic\r\n

Living or growing in water.

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水生

在水中生活的,生长在水中的

Screenings\r\n

Solid materials like plastic removed from wastewater by screens.

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放映

用筛网从废水中去除塑料等固体材料。

Sedimentation\r\n

Sedimentation is a physical wastewater treatment process used to settle out suspended solids in water under the influence of gravity.

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沉积

沉淀法是在重力作用下将水中悬浮固体析出的一种物理废水处理方法。

Sludge\r\n

Solid matter that is removed during wastewater treatment. It can be processed into a material called biosolids.

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污泥

废水处理过程中除去的固体物质。它可以被加工成一种叫做生物固体的材料。

Scum\r\n

Any material that floats to the surface of wastewater during treatment, usually removed in sedimentation tanks.

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人渣

在处理过程中浮到废水表面的任何物质,通常在沉淀池中去除。

Microorganisms\r\n

Organisms that are too small to be seen without a microscope.

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微生物

小的有机体小到不用显微镜就看不见的有机体。

Ultraviolet\r\n

Invisible radiation present in the ultraviolet range of light.

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紫外线

存在于紫外线范围内的不可见辐射。

Membranes\r\n

Thin layers of material that allow only some substances from a solution to pass through them.

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只允许溶液中的一些物质通过的薄层材料

Microfiltration\r\n

A process to remove tiny particles from a liquid or solution by passing it through a filter.

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微滤

通过过滤器从液体或溶液中去除微小颗粒的过程。

Ultrafiltration\r\n

The process of removing invisible particles like bacteria from a liquid or solution by passing it through a filter.

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超滤

去除细菌等看不见的粒子的过程从液体或溶液中过滤出来。

Reverse osmosis\r\n

A process where a solution is forced under pressure through a semipermeable membrane, separating pure water from dissolved salts.

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反渗透

一种使溶液在压力下通过半透膜的过程,将纯水从溶解的盐中分离出来。


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