水源

Our main water sources\r\n

All water comes from the environment and flows through the natural water cycle. People manage this to make sure we have a safe and reliable water supply. Managing water in this way creates the urban water cycle. The urban water cycle takes water from many sources.

\r\n"}}" id="text-bae667a6d9" class="cmp-text">

我们的主要水源

所有的水都来自环境,流经自然水循环.人们这样做是为了确保我们有安全可靠的水供应。以这种方式管理水会产生城市水循环.城市水循环从许多来源取水。


Catchments
\r\n\r\n

A catchment is an area of land, usually surrounded by mountains or hills, where all rainfall that runs off the land flows to a common point.

\r\n

When rain falls in a catchment, it flows by gravity downhill – either over the surface or under the ground towards the ocean.

\r\n

If the water flows on top of the ground, it's called surface water. If it soaks into the ground by infiltration, it collects in aquifers and becomes groundwater. Surface water and groundwater flow into waterways like creeks and rivers, or can be stored in water bodies like lakes, lagoons and wetlands. This freshwater eventually flows into the ocean where most of the Earth's water is found.

\r\n"}}" id="T1" class="cmp-text">

集雨

集水区是一块土地,通常被山或丘陵包围,所有从土地上流下的雨水都流到一个共同的点。

当雨水落在集水区时,它在重力作用下向下流动——要么从地表上,要么在地下流向海洋。

如果水在地面上流动,它被称为地表水。如果它渗入地下,它就会聚集起来蓄水层变成了地下水。地表水和地下水流入小溪和河流等水道,或储存在湖泊、泻湖和湿地等水体中。这些淡水最终流入海洋,地球上大部分的水都在那里。

悉尼的大部分饮用水来自蓝山和南部高地。

The Hawkesbury-Nepean River system is the source of the largest volume of Sydney’s drinking water. This river system includes the Hawkesbury-Nepean River and all the smaller rivers that flow into it. They make up an area called the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment. This large valley of over 22,000 square kilometres is larger than the whole of Greater Sydney.

\r\n

The land use within a catchment affects the quality and amount of water in a river. It's important that all land use is managed carefully to make sure rivers remain healthy. Managing the impacts of all the activities around a river and its catchment is called total catchment management.

\r\n

WaterNSW protects the health of our drinking water catchments. This ensures a reliable source of quality, fresh water is available for us to filter and supply to the people of Sydney, the Illawarra and the Blue Mountains. Find out more about managing catchments.

\r\n

Play the Catchment Detox game and take on the challenge to manage a river catchment and create a sustainable and thriving economy.

\r\n"}}" id="text-542bf387be" class="cmp-text">

霍克斯伯里-尼皮安河水系是悉尼最大的饮用水来源。这个水系包括霍克斯伯里-尼皮安河和所有流入其中的较小河流。它们组成了一个叫做霍克斯伯里-尼皮安集水区的区域。这个超过22000平方公里的大山谷比整个大悉尼还要大。

流域内的土地利用影响着河流的水质和水量。重要的是要仔细管理所有的土地使用,以确保河流保持健康。管理一条河流及其集水区周围所有活动的影响称为全面集水区管理。

WaterNSW保护我们饮用水集水区的健康。这确保了可靠的优质淡水来源,我们可以过滤并供应给悉尼、伊拉瓦拉和蓝山的人民。了解更多关于管理集雨

排水排毒游戏和接受挑战,管理一个河流集水区,创造一个可持续和繁荣的经济。


Dams\r\n

Rain falling in river catchments is currently the main source of Sydney’s drinking water.

\r\n

Dams are built across rivers to catch and store water to give us a more permanent and reliable water supply. Dams store water in an area behind the dam wall. This is often called a storage reservoir.

\r\n

WaterNSW manages and protects drinking water catchments in NSW. Five of these catchments provide the source water for 11 major dams that supply water for Sydney, the Illawarra and the Blue Mountains. 

\r\n

Sydney's dam water is filtered at one of our 9 water filtration plants to make sure it’s of excellent quality, clean and safe to drink.

\r\n

Warragamba Dam is Sydney’s largest dam. It provides about 80% of Greater Sydney's water supply. The dam collects water from the Wollondilly and Coxs river systems and forms Lake Burragorang behind the dam wall.

\r\n

Warragamba Dam is 65 kilometres west of Sydney in a narrow gorge on the Warragamba River. It's the largest urban water supply in Australia and one of the largest domestic water supply dams in the world. It holds 4 times more water than Sydney Harbour when it's full.

\r\n

Some water also comes from smaller dams to the south of Sydney or in the Blue Mountains. These include CataractCordeauxAvon and Nepean dams.

\r\n

Learn more about water supply catchments and dams at WaterNSW.

\r\n"}}" id="T2" class="cmp-text">

大坝

目前悉尼饮用水的主要来源是河流集水区的雨水。

在河流上修建水坝是为了蓄水,为我们提供更持久、更可靠的供水。水坝将水储存在坝墙后面的区域。这通常被称为贮水池。

新南威尔士州水务公司管理和保护新南威尔士州的饮用水集水区。其中5个集水区为11个主要水坝提供水源,这些水坝为悉尼、伊拉瓦拉和蓝山提供水源。

悉尼水坝的水是在我们的9个过滤器之一水过滤植物确保它的优良品质,清洁和安全饮用。

Warragamba大坝是悉尼最大的水坝。它提供了大悉尼地区80%的水供应。大坝从Wollondilly和Coxs河系统收集水,在大坝墙后形成了Burragorang湖。

瓦拉甘巴大坝位于悉尼以西65公里的瓦拉甘巴河上的一个狭窄峡谷中。它是澳大利亚最大的城市供水系统,也是世界上最大的国内供水大坝之一。它满载时的水量是悉尼港的4倍。

一些水也来自悉尼南部或蓝山的小型水坝。这些包括白内障Cordeaux雅芳而且Nepean大坝。

欲知更多有关集水区及水坝的资料,请浏览WaterNSW

雅芳大坝是大悉尼地区11座主要大坝之一。

Dam levels\r\n

Warragamba Dam’s water level rises and falls depending on the amount of:

\r\n
    \r\n
  • rainfall in its catchment
  • \r\n
  • water used by people in Sydney.
  • \r\n
\r\n

Since Warragamba was built in 1960, its lowest dam level was 32.4% on 10 February 2007. This occurred during a drought known as the Millennium Drought, which lasted from 1996 to mid-2010. In 2019–20, we experienced the effects of the worst drought on record.

\r\n

Visit WaterNSW to check dam levels or check on rainfall and dam levels in the Greater Sydney CatchmentLearn more about water use and conservation.

\r\n"}}" id="text-ee83ea67b7" class="cmp-text">

大坝的水平

瓦拉甘巴大坝的水位升降取决于:

  • 集水区的降雨
  • 悉尼人使用的水。

瓦拉甘巴大坝自1960年建成以来,2007年2月10日的最低水位为32.4%。这发生在一场被称为干旱的时期年干旱从1996年持续到2010年年中。2019 - 2020年,我们经历了有记录以来最严重的干旱。

访问WaterNSW查看大坝的水平或者查看大悉尼集水区的降雨量和大坝水位了解更多关于用水及节约

瓦拉甘巴大坝在2012年3月接近满水,自1998年以来首次溢出。

在干旱期间(2020年1月中旬),瓦拉甘巴大坝的容量下降到约42%。


Oceans\n

The ocean can be used as a source of drinking water. Unlike rivers and dams, the amount of seawater in oceans is not affected by changing rainfall.

\n

Desalination is the process of removing the salt from seawater to produce drinking water. It is a way to make sure people have enough water when:

\n
    \n
  • countries do not have rivers that are easy to get to
  • \n
  • countries are affected by drought
  • \n
  • rainfall isn't adequate
  • \n
  • populations grow faster than existing water supplies.
  • \n
\n

In response to the Millennium Drought, the NSW Government commissioned the Sydney Desalination Plant on the coast at Kurnell, between Botany Bay and the Tasman Sea. It can produce 250 million litres a day, which is about 15% of Greater Sydney's drinking water needs. While the plant is operating, we can adjust the capacity based on our system's needs.

\n

Desalination has provided an extra source of water for Sydney that doesn't rely on rain. It's an important part of the NSW Government's plan to make sure we have enough water for the future.

\n

Water from the desalination plant must meet the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and Sydney Water’s standards.

\n"}}" id="T3" class="cmp-text">

海洋

海洋可以用作饮用水的来源。与河流和水坝不同,海洋中的海水量不受不断变化的降雨量的影响。

脱盐是从海水中去除盐分以生产饮用水的过程。这是一种确保人们有足够的水的方法,当:

  • 国家没有容易到达的河流
  • 许多国家受到干旱的影响
  • 雨量不足
  • 人口增长的速度快于现有的供水。

为了应对千年干旱,新南威尔士州政府委托悉尼海水淡化厂在植物湾和塔斯曼海之间的科内尔海岸。它每天能生产2.5亿升水,约占大悉尼地区饮用水需求的15%。当工厂运行时,我们可以根据系统的需要调整容量。

海水淡化为悉尼提供了一种不依赖雨水的额外水源。这是新南威尔士州政府计划的重要组成部分,以确保我们未来有足够的水。

海水淡化厂的水必须符合澳大利亚饮用水指南和悉尼水务公司的标准。

地球上97%的水都在海洋中。


Recycled water\r\n

Recycled water is water that's been used before. Recycled water is also another reliable source of water. We take wastewater or stormwater and clean it to a high standard so it can be returned to homes and businesses and safely used again.

\r\n

There are many cities around the world that use recycled water as part of their drinking water supply. Some places you might like to learn more about are PerthSan Diego and Singapore.

\r\n"}}" id="T4" class="cmp-text">

再生水

再生水是以前用过的水。再生水也是另一种可靠的水源。我们收集废水或雨水,并将其净化到高标准,这样它们就可以返回家庭和企业,并再次安全使用。

世界上有许多城市使用再生水作为饮用水供应的一部分。有些地方你可能想了解更多珀斯圣地亚哥而且新加坡

We currently use recycled water in Greater Sydney for things like:

\r\n
    \r\n
  • watering sports fields, lawns and gardens, including fruit and vegetable plants
  • \r\n
  • flushing toilets
  • \r\n
  • washing cars
  • \r\n
  • filling ornamental ponds
  • \r\n
  • fighting fires
  • \r\n
  • washing laundry in a washing machine (you need the right plumbing for this)
  • \r\n
  • making liveable cities with water features that make urban places cooler in summer
  • \r\n
  • manufacturing.
  • \r\n
\r\n

We expect to use more recycled water in the future. Learn more about water recycling in Greater Sydney.

\r\n"}}" id="text-52753af1c2" class="cmp-text">

目前,我们在大悉尼地区使用循环水来做以下事情:

  • 为运动场、草坪和花园浇水,包括水果和蔬菜植物
  • 冲洗厕所
  • 洗车
  • 填充观赏性池塘
  • 救火
  • 用洗衣机洗衣服(你需要合适的管道)
  • 使宜居城市有水景,使城市在夏天更凉爽
  • 制造业。

我们希望将来使用更多的循环水。了解更多关于水回收利用在大悉尼。

再生水是高质量的。


Other sources\r\n

In Australia and in many other countries, water is scarce. People have developed many ways to collect and store water. These include groundwater and rainwater tanks.
\r\n 

\r\n

Groundwater

\r\n

Groundwater is water located beneath the Earth's surface. Some rain falling in catchments infiltrates into the ground and is called groundwater.

\r\n

Groundwater collects in aquifers that are the spaces in rocks and between grains of sand and gravel. Groundwater slowly moves through these aquifers and flows into rivers, streams, lakes and wetlands. The top of the groundwater is called the water table.

\r\n

Aquifers can store large quantities of water and can be the main source of water, particularly in dry areas. This groundwater can be used by people who build wells or bores to reach the water under the ground.

\r\n

If groundwater is used in a sustainable way, it can be an important part of a city's water supply system.

\r\n

Learn more about groundwater use from NSW Health.

\r\n"}}" id="T5" class="cmp-text">

其他来源

在澳大利亚和许多其他国家,水是稀缺的。人们已经开发了许多收集和储存水的方法。这些包括地下水和雨水罐。

地下水

地下水是位于地球表面以下的水。有些落在集水区的雨水渗入地下,称为地下水。

地下水聚集在含水层中,含水层是岩石中的空隙以及沙粒和砾石之间的空隙。地下水缓慢地穿过这些含水层,流入河流、小溪、湖泊和湿地。地下水的顶部叫做地下水位。

含水层可以储存大量的水,可以成为主要的水源,特别是在干旱地区。这些地下水可以被人们用来打井或打孔以获取地下的水。

如果以可持续的方式使用地下水,它可以成为城市供水系统的重要组成部分。

了解更多关于地下水使用新南威尔士州卫生部。

Rainwater tanks\r\n

Rainwater tanks collect water that you can use in your garden.

\r\n

Rainwater tanks can be a water source for drinking, flushing toilets, washing clothes or watering gardens. However, in urban areas it's usually unsafe to drink tank water.

\r\n

This is due to higher levels of pollution in the atmosphere, which could pollute the tank water. NSW Health recommends that people use their public water supply for drinking and cooking because it's filtered, disinfected and generally fluoridated.

\r\n

After long periods of drought, many people in Greater Sydney installed rainwater tanks. This water is used to water gardens, flush toilets, and helps conserve our drinking water resources. 

\r\n

Learn more about rainwater tanks from NSW Health.

\r\n"}}" id="text-5e33e34b68" class="cmp-text">

雨水坦克

雨水罐收集你可以在你的花园使用的水。

雨水罐可以作为饮用、冲厕所、洗衣服或浇灌花园的水源。然而,在城市地区,喝水箱的水通常是不安全的。

这是由于大气污染水平较高,可能会污染水箱水。新南威尔士州卫生部建议人们使用公共供水来饮用和烹饪,因为这些水经过过滤、消毒,通常还加了氟。

经过长时间的干旱,大悉尼的许多人都安装了雨水罐。这些水被用来浇灌花园,冲厕所,并帮助保存我们的饮用水资源。

了解更多关于雨水坦克来自新南威尔士州卫生部

雨水罐收集你可以在你的花园使用的水。

Aquifers\r\n

An aquifer is an underground layer of water-storing rock or loose materials like gravel, sand or silt.

\r\n"}}" id="text-244b7e00cf" class="cmp-text">
蓄水层

含水层是地下储存水的岩石或松散物质,如砾石、沙子或淤泥。


教师资源

饮用水味道测试(201KB)-建立一个盲品测试作为实验

地球上的水你知道地球上所有的水是我们仅有的资源吗?

术语表-关键词和行业术语的定义


Baidu
map